重讀卡繆經典 「我知道這世界我無處容身,只是,你憑什麼審判我的靈魂?」—《異鄉人》
2021年9月3日
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重讀卡繆經典 「我知道這世界我無處容身,只是,你憑什麼審判我的靈魂?」—《異鄉人》

Written 誠品香港

提到卡繆,不得不讀的是出版於1942年的《異鄉人》,亦是諾貝爾文學獎獲獎小說。《異鄉人》一直被視為「存在主義」的代表作,但對於這樣的身分及標籤,卡繆本人是否認的,至今仍是學界具爭議性的話題。
 
《異鄉人》雖出版多年,但書中主角所面對的事情至今仍發生在現代社會,呈現出社會非理性與不講理的本質,並深入地探討可謂真正地活著。讓我們重讀這本經典文學,嘗試從主角莫梭身上找到新的啟發。
 
內容概要


—今天,媽媽死了,也或許是昨天,我不知道。


莫梭是住在法屬阿爾及利亞的法國年輕人,他意外槍殺了一個阿拉伯人,被逮捕候審。這原本是一樁相對單純的案件,卻因為夏季沒什麼大新聞,就被炒成報紙上眾所矚目的大事。
 
莫梭平常與人保持距離、不空口說話的個性被挖出來當作反社會人格的證據;把母親送到養老院、母親過世時沒有哭泣,變成毫無良心的鐵證;在守靈夜喝咖啡抽菸,更讓人合理推斷他是個禽獸不如的傢伙。檢察官表示,被告在精神上殺死了母親,是社會敗壞的根源,請求法官判處極刑。然而,始終沒人談論那個被殺害的阿拉伯人⋯⋯
 
作者簡介:卡繆

1913年生於北非法屬阿爾及利亞的勞工家庭,父親在他出生未久便被徵召參與第一次世界大戰身亡,幼小的卡繆被母親帶回娘家撫養。中學以後卡繆開始半工半讀,做過很多工作,雖然生活辛苦,但阿爾及利亞臨地中海的陽光普照溫暖氣候,對卡繆的思想及精神有深刻的鼓舞,後來更成為他思想體系的象徵,相對於德國思想家所產生的北方思想。
 
卡繆大學畢業後先擔任記者,報導許多阿爾及利亞中下勞動階層及穆斯林的疾苦,同時參與政治運動,組織劇團表達觀點。二戰爆發後因在阿爾及利亞服務的報紙被查封,於是卡繆前往巴黎的報刊任職。在阿爾及利亞時卡繆便開始創作戲劇、小說與散文,1942年出版《異鄉人》之後開始在法國與國際獲得推崇,1957年獲諾貝爾文學獎,瑞典學院讚其作品:「具有清晰洞見,言詞懇切,闡明當代人的良心問題。」卡繆在1960年於法國車禍驟逝。
 
即使世界很荒謬,也不讓自己的靈魂被扭曲
 


《異鄉人》中的主角莫梭所面對的是一場荒謬的審判,案件的來龍去脈並不複雜,基於防衛,莫梭意外殺死了那個阿拉伯人,但因為莫梭送母親到養老院、沒有為母親的死而哭泣等的事,對他進行人格和道德的審判,斷定他是一個壞人。莫梭對於這樣不公平的審判,由始至終,也沒有說謊,對自己的選擇負責,坦誠地面對這一切,而唯一令他極度厭惡的是強加在自己身上的價值觀,因為靈魂不是他人能隨便審判和扭曲的。也許就是莫梭的不虛偽,不願去配合社會而做一些非自主的行為,令他成為一個「異鄉人」。
 
可惜的是即使時代不同,人的思想行為仍然沒有改變。此書是對現代人的一個提醒,有時我們很容易因為一個人過往曾經做過的事,用倫理道德去判斷那個人是否好人,而並非著重於事情的本質。另一點更值得反思的是,倫理道德會逼使我們演戲,主角沒有為母親的死而悲傷和哭泣就是壞人,他「應該」要感到傷心的。而就是這些「應該」的出現,令一個人只要與社會上大部份人的價值觀不同,就會被人格審判,因為他破壞了道德的體制,影響了社會的和諧。故事所帶出的,是要為自己而活,為自己的人生作選擇,就像主角回憶起母親時所說「這世上沒有人,沒有任何人有權為她哭泣。」一樣,一個人要做什麼、有什麼感受,都是自由的,誰也沒權擅自詮釋別人的靈魂。
 

經典延伸 — 從小說到不同年代的電影

同名電影—《異鄉人》(1967)


由意大利導演盧契諾·維斯康堤執導,電影故事及角色的設定都十分貼近原著,把書中的情感真實地演繹出來。 

內容概要:
一個在阿爾及利亞的法裔小職員,孤獨內向,不善與人溝通,而且周圍也沒有人關心他。他對社會的一切事情漠不關心,甚至母親的去世也沒有讓他過於傷感。後來他不慎槍殺一個流氓,卻第一次引起了社會對他的關注,法庭也以他在母親的葬禮的表現、平日生活的行為等等推斷他本質頑劣。他不接受神父的告解,卻對自己的生死有著肯定的看法。現實生活的荒謬,使得這個小職員成為一個無意中與法律和傳統習俗格格不入的局外人。
 
伊斯坦堡影展最佳土耳其電影—《卡繆之異鄉人》Fate (2001)
 

以《異鄉人》為藍本,講述一個沒有任何熱情的年輕人為自己生命所作出的一連串決定,思考人生的意義。電影榮獲多個獎項,包括2001年安卡拉影展最佳導演、2002年坎城影展「一種注目」以及2002年伊斯坦堡影展最佳土耳其電影,電影更巧妙地運用暗喻,值得一看。

內容概要:
海關記帳員穆沙對生活缺乏熱情,沒有年輕人應有的一丁點抱負或夢想,對週遭人事物也無法產生情感,甚至連相依為命的母親過世了,都沒有露出一絲哀戚;他與辦公室同事約會看電影,甚至上了床、結了婚,他仍不確定自己究竟喜不喜歡她。
 

帶這本書回家
 

《異鄉人》
作者│ 卡繆
譯者│ 嚴慧瑩
出版社│大塊文化
 
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